Analytical Research Report GE9X vs. GE90 Engines

Why Should engineers of the Boeing 777 choose Ge9X engines for the aircraft rather than the GE90 or GEnx engines

Analytical Research Report rubric

1) Must be one of the following AND contain recommendations at the end of the report for your primary audience:
o a feasibility study
o a comparative analysis
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o a problem-solution analysis
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• Front Matter: (30 points)
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o ALL research here
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Ge9X vs. GE90 Engines
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

Abstract
The report seeks to determine why the use of GE9X engines for Boeing 777X series aircraft is better than GE90 engines. The report will review the method, results, and discussion. The research method relied on the googlescholar.com to gather information and sources. The sources helped in recording quality information comparing the performance of the new and old engine models of aircrafts. from the research work, it is clear that the GE9X technology works effective in improving long-term innovations and technology of the engine. The GE engineers are committed in enhancing transparency and efficiency. It can be concluded that GE9X engine are better than GE90 engines for the Boeing 777 X series aircraft due to the major improvements made into the engines. The recommendations made were to ensure that the GE9X engines are integrated well into Boeing 777X larger aircrafts to reduce potential failures.

Table of Contents
1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………..……………4
2. Methodology………………………………………………………………..……………..5
3. Results of study…………………………………………………………………..…..……6
4. Discussion of results …………………………………………………………..…….…..10
5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………….…………………13
6. References ……………………………………………………………………………….14

GE9X vs. GE90 Engines
Introduction
The engineers of Boeing 777 have a decision to consider whether to select Ge9X engines for its aircrafts rather than installing GE90 engines. The decision to choose one engine design from another requires comprehensive analysis of their compatibility, specifications, and fuel-efficiency among others. The GE9X is a high-by pass engine that has been under development by GE for use with Boeing 777X aircrafts. The engine is expected to improve the overall fuel efficiency by 10% compared to GE90 engines (Timko, et al., 2014). The ability to improve fuel usage is critical as fuel is one of the main costs and resources that airlines are seeking to control. Boeing 777X aircraft will be able to benefit from the integration of the engine as it guarantees lower cost of operations. Boeing 777X is a new model of aircraft that is projected to overcome the limitation of the past aircraft. It will be larger and more advanced in terms of technology and capacity. The GE9X engine will fit well into the aircraft and thus, making it possible to expand productivity and performance of the Boeing 777X series. Such improvements are critical in ensuring that GE9X engine aligns with the FAA requirements and guidelines on efficient and safe engines. The improvement made on the GE9X are critical in helping to improve the fuel design and shaping of aircraft operations compared to GE90 engines (Grönstedt, Irannezhad, Lei, Thulin, & Lundbladh, 2014). With continued efforts to advance engine designs, the progress of GE9X model is critical for the aircraft to shape efficiency of the aircraft operations and performance. GE90 engine have been proved to be subject to numerous failures making it difficult to improve quality aircraft design and expansions. The report will detail the research methodology, results, discussion, and the conclusion of the research work.
Methodology
The main research methodology was the use of qualitative research approach through the collecting of information through googlescholar.com articles and sources. Gathering qualitative information and knowledge is critical and makes it possible to understand the non-numerical advantages and benefits of the GE9X engines. The first element search in googlescholar.com is “GE engine.” The platform provides an opportunity to get sources in readable formats that makes it possible to gather academic reliable information. The search will be useful in obtaining broader sources related to aircraft engines. The second and refined search will be GE9X engine. The search can also include the criteria to obtain peer-reviewed journal articles. The peer-reviewed journals are helpful in presenting verifiable and quality research information about the GE engines for the aircrafts.
The search criteria are important and works well in obtaining in improving the overall efficiency of the engine for the Boeing 777 aircrafts. The googlescholar.com search will also help to obtain diverse and rich sources in information about GE9X engines compared to GE90 engines. The comparison of the two engines will be easy after gathering the research information from the literature and journal sources. The secondary data sources obtained will provide an opportunity for the researchers to read and get the actual competitive advantage of each engine before documenting the results. The assessment of the GE9X and GE90 engines helps to know how they fits into the new aircraft models including the Boeing 777 model. Therefore, the qualitative research methodology is useful in the gathering of understandable research information and data on the nature of the two engine types and designs, GE9X and GE90.

Results of this Study
Based on the research work, it is clear that the overall pressure ratio of GE9X is 61:1 and it would help in offering 5% lower trust-specific fuel consumption(TSFC) than the GE90 engine with lower maintenance costs. Other features of GE9X engine includes that the bypass ratio is expected to be 10:1, the fan diameter is 340 cm, and 16 blades making it lighter and makes it for low pressure fan. The engine also makes it possible to boost the spins to align with the speed with low pressure turbine (Timko, et al., 2014). The blades comprise of steel and glass-material edges to absorb bird effect with significant flexibility compared to carbon material. The integration of carbon fiber materials including fan blades helps to make the engine lighter, stronger and even more efficient.
Unlike GE90 engine, GE9X engine has a composite fan casing that also helps in lowering the overall weight. The development of GE9X was keen on expanding efficiency through increasing the overall pressure ratio from the current 40 of GE90 to 60. The increase in the pressure ratio sought to increase the core high-pressure level in the engine from the current 19:1 to 27:1 through 11 compressor stages unlike 9 or 10 (Pollock, 2016). The engine is also able to sustain higher temperature levels through the installation of ceramic matrix composites(CMC). The CMCs are useful in withstanding the high level of heat and centrifugal pressures. Such improvements are projected to enhance the engine technology significantly.
Unlike the current GE9X, the GE90 was determined to have some transfer gearbox failures. The failures were determined in May 2013. An emergency directive issued on the gearbox failures caused massive in-flight shutdowns. The troubles with the GE90 engine prompted GE to make some updates through the introduction of GE9X that would overcome the problems. The investigations done determined the failures emerged from radial gear separation and cracking (Lobo, et al., 2015). Additional inspections identified extra radial gears with significant cracks. The condition might lead to extra IFSDs, potential damage of the airplanes, and the loss of thrust management. GE was adversely affected by the directive following the failure of GE90.
One incident that happened in 2004 is the engine failure of a British Airways flight. A GE90 engine that was used in the powering a Boeing 777-200ER failed to takeoff. The pilot crew realized a vibration and noise while taking off, but it continued with continuous rotation. At a higher height of 1500fts, they realized smoke in the cockpit and the crew were concerned that the cabin was becoming filled with huge smoke. The aircraft operating with GE90 was forced to return to the airport for emergency landing. The outcomes were determined to be stage 2 turbine blade that were separate and the shank was damaged leading to the overall vibration. The increased amount of debris was indicated in the engine casing. Other cases recognized includes Air Canada 777 and Singapore Airlines with engine failures and thus, leading to fire damages.
According to Haselbach, Newby and Parker (2015), 3D printing has been helpful in the design of GE9X engine parts. It helped to grow the engine parts from the start and allowing the engineers to structure the complex internal elements of the engines. In the past, it was extremely impossible and challenging to structure the parts without the addictive manufacturing process. However, GE engines still keeps the design of the engine parts secret to avoid any infiltration into their technology. The core element of CMCs initially identified is critical in allowing the engineers to improve the strength of the engine (Ajupov, Kurilova, & Ivanov, 2015). The new engine design, GE9X is able to allow for higher heat within the engine and lower the fuel burn and large amount of emissions. The engineers at GE believed that the higher heat accumulating in the engines is beneficial in increasing efficiency of the engine operations.
The testing of the GE9X parts has been done differently with advanced technologies than GE90. The early testing of the engine helped to improve the design to allow for the restructuring of the total engine operations. After Boeing sought to develop Boeing 777X aircraft, it requested GE to create an engine that could help in powering it fully. GE has been able to get specialized orders from Boeing for the 777Xs. the value of the order is too high and the engineers GE are working to ensure that the GE9X engines are advanced to power the Boeing 777X without any problems (Cuny, Philippon, Chevrier, & Garcin, 2014). Understanding the core nature of the Boeing 777X is critical in determining the efficiency of running the GE9X rather than GE90 engine in the aircraft. The Boeing 777X is expected to be larger and more advanced in terms of capacity and technology. GE9X gives the aircraft an opportunity to run efficiently without any concerns of potential engine failures like GE90 engines. Such improvements are core to the current progress in the aviation sector globally.
The GE90X engine usually produces lower power compared to GE90 engine. However, it is more efficient and quiet. The GE9X engine aligns well with the requirement of FAA noise rules to improve the engine performance. In the past few years, GE90 has helped Boeing 777-300ER to capture its international market access. It because the engine was powerful and useful in shaping productivity (Hardy, et al, 2014). The GE9X engine will be able to help the Boeing 777-X series to sustain the dominance of the market over time. According to Lobo, et al. (2015), the engine has been determined to be extremely powerful and advanced for the Boeing 777 aircrafts.
From the research work, it can be determined that the size of the engine is critical. A turbofan engine is a critical jet engine insulated by huge fan. The jet is able to generate thrust, but the fan is spinning well. The fan is able to draw more air, speeding up well, and offering strong engine power (Lasheras, et al., 2015). The bigger size of GE9X is more efficient and noise is reduced significantly. The bigger engine size usually draws additional air with low energy while the weight is low. The larger fans are often quieter engines as they will distribute more airflow in a larger space.
The GE9X will come along with advanced analytics abilities that will make it possible for airlines to predict and review the maintenance requirements, reducing downtime for the repairs and service. The efforts to implement upgraded processing capacity and new sensors helps to gather data and communicate it effective well to the managers and analyze the data through GE’s computing platform (Lobo, et al., 2015). Normally, aviation is slow and the new engine design needs significant testing to ensure advanced production assessment. It allows for the improving of the power units to improve the testing of the engine design and platforms.
GE is keen on sending air to the core of engine than within the engine. The GE9X is able to boast the overall features to promote successful efficiency and noise reduction of GE90. GE engineers have been able to design the engines using carbon material blades that lowered the weight to increase the ability to sustain the huge speed airwaves. The huge blades are developed in a way to pull huge air in managing low noise levels (Xu, Wang & Xu, 2015). The ability to reduce the weight level and efficiency is critical in modeling the engine designs.

Discussion of this Study
From the research findings, GE9X engine is efficient and it is preferable to GE90 to improve fuel consumption and reduce complexities. The features of GE9X is critical including the expansion of blades, fan diameter, and bypass ratio. The new engine design is critical in improving the pressure fan to enhance efficiency and performance. The blades comprise of steel and glass-material edges to absorb bird effect with significant flexibility compared to carbon material. The integration of carbon fiber materials including fan blades helps to make the engine lighter, stronger and even more efficient.
Compared to the GE90, the new design of GE9X has integrated less weight materials that is critical in enhancing efficiency. The weight of the engine parts depends on the aircrafts composition including engine integrations. The creation of GE9X was keen on expanding efficiency through increasing the overall pressure ratio from the current 40 of GE90 to 60. The engine is also able to hold on to the high temperature by the adoption of ceramic matrix composites(CMC). The CMCs makes it possible to accumulate more heat and withstand centrifugal pressures. High temperatures are determined to be effective in improving the aircraft engine performance. The comparability of the key features of the two engines including GE9X and GE90 engines are necessary to improve the design of the Boeing 777x series.
The GE aviation has received high valued orders for the supply of GE9X engines from Boeing that will be fitted into the Boeing 777X series aircrafts. The GE engineers are always working to ensure that the GE9X engine is powerful and meets the requirement for the Boeing 777X model of aircraft. The GE9X engines are advanced to power the Boeing 777X without any complexities to enhance the progression. The knowledge of the key nature and values of the Boeing 777X is critical in determining the efficiency of operating the GE9X rather than GE90 engine in the aircrafts. The GE9X engines allows for efficient operations through reducing the potential engine failures like GE90 engines. Such potential engine improvements are relevant the current advancements in the aviation sector in th world.
From the research outcomes, the Boeing 777X is a new model of aircraft will rely on the new design of GE9X to improve their performance capacity. The new aircraft will be larger and advanced technologically. The GE9X engine will work well into the aircraft that is a critical element of improving productivity and performance of the Boeing 777X aircraft. The specific improvements are necessary in enhancing the performance capacity of GE9X engine to align with the FAA requirements on efficient and safe engines. The research investigations done by the FAA determined that common failures results from radial gear separation and regular cracking. Further inspections conducted helped in the identification of additional radial gears with major cracks. The situation often causes additional IFSDs, probable damage of the airplanes, and the loss of thrust balance. The GE aviation was at fault in the FAA directives due to the continued failure of GE90 engines.
Even though GE90X offers low power compared to GE90 engine, it is more efficient and it not subject to potential failures. The GE90X engine is designed and structured in a manner that fulfills the FAA requirements on engine design and performance. For example, the engine design fits into the FAA rules on noise reduction for the new engine designs. GE90X is powerful in determining the evaluation of the ability to improve Boeing 777X series aircrafts effectively. In the past, GE90 been used on most of the aircrafts to power the engine. GE aviation was able to dominate the market due to their ability to design quality engine that aligns with the aircraft needs and requirements.
GE9X’s new design will work well in growing the capability and power of the engine design. For example, the turbofan aircraft engine is critical to influence the overall thrust power. The larger fan has the capacity to attract more air that increases the significance of the GE9X’s engine power. A larger GE9X is important and its larger size of the engine works well in growing its efficiency and engine power. Compliance with laid-down programs on GE9X engine design is necessary to improve the engine performance. Therefore, the GE9X is necessary in shaping the aircraft engine performance and productivity that works well to enhance fitness of Boeing 777X series.
For the Boeing 777X, it is recommendable for the aircraft manufacturers to choose the GE9X rather than GE90 because its design its current and it is improved compared to the older model of GE90. GE90 has been proved to cause some complexities and problems. Making corrective actions over the GE90 engine is important and helps in resolving potential engine failures. The reported cases of engine failures among the diverse airline shows that GE90 cannot be relied upon for the larger Boeing 777X aircraft model. Improved GE9X engine is fuel-efficient and it will allow for innovation for the aircraft design and fuel consumption.
It is clear, in the last 10 years, it was impossible to design the engine parts without the 3-D printing technology and innovation process. However, GE engines maintains the design of the engine parts secure to avoid their technology being stolen. The protection of the engine design would help in making future improvement for its aircraft design. The main element of CMCs identified is critical in allowing the engineers to improve the strength of the engine parts. GE9X model is critical for the aircraft to shape efficiency of the aircraft operations and performance. GE90 engine have been proved to be subject to numerous failures making it difficult to improve quality aircraft design and expansion.
Conclusion
In summary, the Boeing 777X series will definitely choose GE9X engine rather than GE90 engine due to its fuel-efficiency, reduced noise level, and advanced innovation. GE aviation has been able to improve the features of GE9X engine to make it more light and efficient to enhance proper functioning of the engines. The GE9X engine is able to allow for higher heat within the engine and lower the fuel burn and large amount of emissions. The engineers at GE believed that the higher heat accumulating in the engines is beneficial in increasing efficiency of the engine operations. Aviation process is always slow and the new engine design needs significant testing to ensure advanced production assessment. It usually allows for the improving of the power units to improve the testing of the engine design and platforms. The advancements made on the GE9X are critical in helping to improve the fuel design and shaping of aircraft operations compared to GE90 engines. Considering the continued efforts to improve on engine designs, the expansion of the GE9X engine model is critical for the aircraft to shape efficiency of the aircraft operations and performance. The GE90 engine have been proved to be subject to numerous failures making it difficult to improve quality aircraft design and expansions. Therefore, the GE9X engine is suitable and critical in shaping Boeing 777X series over the GE90 engines to promote advanced innovation and efficiency of the new engine design.

References
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Cuny, M., Philippon, S., Chevrier, P., & Garcin, F. (2014). Experimental measurement of dynamic forces generated during short-duration contacts: application to blade-casing interactions in aircraft engines. Experimental mechanics, 54(2), 101-114.
Grönstedt, T., Irannezhad, M., Lei, X., Thulin, O., & Lundbladh, A. (2014). First and second law analysis of future aircraft engines. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 136(3), 031202.
Hardy, M. C., Herbert, C. R. J., Kwong, J., Li, W., Axinte, D. A., Sharman, A. R. C., … & Withers, P. J. (2014). Characterising the integrity of machined surfaces in a powder nickel alloy used in aircraft engines. Procedia Cirp, 13, 411-416.
Haselbach, F., Newby, A., & Parker, R. (2015, March). Next Generation of Large Civil Aircraft Engines—Concepts & Technologies. In European Conference on Turbomachinery Fluid dynamics and Thermodynamics (ETC), Madrid, Spain, Mar (pp. 23-27).
Lasheras, F. S., Nieto, P. J. G., de Cos Juez, F. J., Bayón, R. M., & Suárez, V. M. G. (2015). A hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-based prognostic approach of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines. Sensors, 15(3), 7062-7083.
Lobo, P., Christie, S., Khandelwal, B., Blakey, S. G., & Raper, D. W. (2015). Evaluation of non-volatile particulate matter emission characteristics of an aircraft auxiliary power unit with varying alternative jet fuel blend ratios. Energy & Fuels, 29(11), 7705-7711.
Pollock, T. M. (2016). Alloy design for aircraft engines. Nature materials, 15(8), 809-815.
Timko, M. T., Albo, S. E., Onasch, T. B., Fortner, E. C., Yu, Z., Miake-Lye, R. C., … & Worsnop, D. R. (2014). Composition and sources of the organic particle emissions from aircraft engines. Aerosol Science and Technology, 48(1), 61-73.
Xu, J., Wang, Y., & Xu, L. (2015). PHM-oriented sensor optimization selection based on multiobjective model for aircraft engines. IEEE Sensors Journal, 15(9), 4836-4844.